Music makes a difference

Excerpts from: LEARNING CURVE - Tools for teaching to two often-overlooked forms of intelligence by David D. Thornburg from "A+" magazine, April 1989

Discussion of the spatial and musical intelligences is especially important because they are not usually nurtured throughout students' school years. Support for painting and music is high in the primary years but falls off sharply as children reach higher grades. Research at the University of California strongly suggests that we need to develop the spatial reasoning ability and music of all children.
Most classrooms today give the impression that music has never been invented, yet no culture on this planet is without music.
   The power of music and its relevance to subjects as diverse as history and mathematics suggest that we need more of it in the classroom.
       For certain learners, music can be a gateway to knowledge. The instrumentation and mood of a piece of music might communicate more clearly than words, the feeling of an era being studied than history. The exploration of rhythm can help some students understand fractions. Study of the sounds of an organ pipe can lead to an understanding of vibration modes in physics. If you are still unconvinced, ask yourself the following question: What caused the German astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) to think of the motions of planets in musical terms? Astronomy students could program a synthesizer to play Kepler's "music of the spheres" and explore history, science, math, and music all at once. Of all the intelligences we are exploring, the musical is the most ignored and yet is the most universal.



Resource Guide to Educational Research

Compiled by Jeanne Akin

Arts education advocates are convinced that music education helps children learn in school. In order to bring about statewide use of music in the general curriculum, legislators and other school policy makers must also be convinced of its value.

Educational research demonstrates the positive effect of music curriculum in developing academic achievement skills. The following pages list references to educational research to which arts education advocates can refer when presenting position papers, lectures, giving testimony before committees, etc., in the work of developing school wide general curriculum in which music serves as an integral part.

Note: in descriptions of arts programs, it is understood that music curriculum is an integral part of instruction.

Section I, Studies: research conclusions and/or description of each study are followed by a reference notation. For further information, see the Reference section.

Section II, Reports: journal articles and documents referring to other studies make up the section.

Section III, Other Resources: information helpful to the work of arts education advocates is included here.

Section IV, References: this section is included to assist in locating further information for Guide listing.

Studies in Educational Research

Teachers know that children learn concepts more easily when music is part of the curriculum. Evidence of this ranges from the first grade teacher who wrote 65 songs to teach her Pilgrims unit, to the Ph D University professor who insists the reason his third grade class learned the multiplication facts so quickly and thoroughly all those years ago was because the teacher's instruction was to the tune of children's songs. In between are all the music teachers who have observed many of their instrumental class students move out of remedial classes in elementary grades into upper level academic classes in the middle school as they completed several years of instrumental music classes.

The following studies of education research give support to the phenomenon that teachers observe: music education provides opportunity to learn academic skills.

Arts Education and Academic Achievement

Arts education leads to cognition and basic skills development. (Medeja, 1978) Cemerel, Inc., an education research firm, issued a report in 1980 on 67 specific studies in California which showed that student achievement in reading, writing and math improved when the arts were included in curriculum. (Milley, 1984)

In an arts enrich instruction, music accompaniment to reading a foreign language produces accelerated learning and increased retention. (Ostrander & Schroder, 1979)

Arts education increases interest in academic learning. 90 % of the graduates of New York City's School of Performing Arts, Division of Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music and Arts go on to college. (Kaufman, 1976)

Music Education and Academic Achievement

   High school music students have been show to hold higher grade point averages (GPA) than non-musicians in the same school. At Mission Viejo High School in 1981-82, music students averaged 3.57 GPA, non-music students averaged 2.91. Further, 16% of the music students held 4.0 GPA. Of the non-music students, 5% held 4.0 GPA. (Horned, 1983) Note that this reference to high school achievement is included in the guide to studies of elementary students due to the developmental nature of music performance learning. Music performance classes in elementary school build the basic skills required for entrance into high school performance groups. This curriculum helps students to develop cognitive skills.
   The study of music produces the development of academic achievement skills. A 1981 survey revealed that 40% of the Westinghouse Science Talent Search winners were accomplished musicians. (State of California, 1986)
    Learning to play a musical instrument helps students to develop faster physically, mentally, emotionally and socially. Dr. Frank R. Wilson, assistant clinical professor of neurology at the University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, reports that research shows instrumental practice to enhance coordination, concentration, memory, improvement of eyesight and hearing acuity. He concluded that learning to play an instrument progressively refines the development of the brain and entire neuromuscular system. (Mueller, 1984)
   Music in a special program of instruction produces accelerated learning. A course of instruction in accelerated learning which includes music allows Bulgarian students to complete two years of curricula in four months. First graders learn to read and write within a few weeks and third grades study intermediate level algebra. Dr. Georgi Lozanov is the founder of accelerated learning at the Institute of Suggestology. His work is being duplicated presently in the U.S. (Delehanty, 1982)
   The Lozanov method used in the U.S. resulted in higher achievement for students in reading and math, as well as in writing and composition. Class room behavior was greatly improved, allowing for effective improved time on task. 850 students of the Paradise California Elementary School participated in the School Experiment in Accelerated Learning Program in 1981-82 and 1982-83. Music was used to adjust the classroom atmosphere, as well as in the curriculum. (Paradise, 1984)
   There is a high relationship between high self perception, high cognitive competence scores, general self-esteem and interest in school music. In a study by the Norwegian Research Council for Science and the Humanities, a connection was found between students having musical competence and high motivation to achieve success in school. Students with interest and competence in school music were found to have positive correlation with cognitive competence scores. (Lillemyre, 1983)
   Achievement in school music builds student self-image which is a motivation for academic learning among urban Black middle school students. (Marshall, 1978)
    Music lessons can lead to interest in academics. Underachieving, disadvantaged youth were given music lessons and developed improvement in their academic attitude and aspirations; they were motivated to learn academic subjects. (Olanoff & Kirschner, 1969)
  Keyboard training for disadvantaged children is beneficial for their overall education. An ESEA Title I program to improve academic achievement found that students who had participated in keyboard lessons scored higher in mathematics and history than students who had not, although their IQ scores were not higher than that of other students. (ESEA, 1969)
   Music education improves student listening skills. In a Passaic, New Jersey Public Schools Summer Program for grades 2-6 students, music was used in the teaching of English to Spanish speakers and reading in English to English speaking children. The program included vocal and instrumental instruction. All students achieved. (Kohanski, 1970)
   Music games can teach fundamental concepts. Dr. Lassar Golkin found that some children who are unable to learn concepts in a school setting are able to easily learn the same concepts through street play and games. He developed the Interdependent Learning Model (ILM) which brings music games into schools for the purpose of teaching academic skills and content. (Hillery, 1979)
   Elementary school children learn better after being relaxed through listening to music. The American Psychological Association carried out a meta-analyses research project of relaxation in which the conclusions of 20 studies revealed the positive effect on cognitive academic variables among elementary school children through progressive relaxation with music. (Moon, 1985)
   There is a relationship between guided relaxation of music and the performance of first grade students on standardized tests. Music is used to "set the mood" for test taking. (Moon, 1985)
   Achievement in music allows mentally handicapped students to achieve in other areas. Music education, performance and therapy used to treat the handicapped helps them to develop self-confidence. This confidence leads to other achievements. (Reingold, 1987)
   Handicapped students achieve significantly through music education. A three year Arts in Education project in five elementary schools in the Clover Park School District, Tacoma, Washington demonstrated that when the basic academic skills were learned through music, a consistent gain of achievement score points was made. Music was found to be highly useful in teaching perceptual skills, and brought a greater interest in language development. (Appell & Goldberg, 1979)
  Singing a lesson helps kindergarten children to learn. In teaching K students a lesson in learning Dolch Sight Words, the teacher sang the words to Group A students, but not to Group B. With the exception of the singing, the lessons were exactly alike. Group A learned more words than Group B. (Blackburn, 1986)

Music and Pre-learning

  Premature babies who listen to music have enhanced cognitive ability which may be lasting. Recordings of classical music were included in a program of special care for premature babies in a study by the University of Florida College of Medicine. The study concluded that the babies receiving the special care program had significantly higher mental and physical development than infants which had not received the care. (The Sacramento  Bee, 1987)
   K student basic skills achievement increases when music and other arts are added to the curriculum. In 1981-82, the California Arts Council contracted with the educational Testing Service to run comprehensive tests on the impact of the arts on pre-learning skills. For each of the five years since 1976, basic skills have been shown to increase when the arts are added to the curriculum. (Minicucci, 1981)

Music in Reading Instruction

   Music included in reading curriculum can bring a rise in student reading achievement test scores. A Title I reading program at Public School No. 9 in Brooklyn, New York included music and the arts in the curriculum, resulting in a dramatic rise in student reading achievement test scores. (Learning, 1980)
   Low achieving readers learn to read when music and related arts are in the reading curriculum. In a study involving over 13,000 children in 43 schools, the ESEA Title I evaluation Report of the Wichita Program for Educationally Deprived Children found gains were made in the corrective reading program when music and related arts were used in the reading curriculum. (ESEA, 1969)
   Students in grades 2-6 who are bi-lingual or non-English speaking learn English language through song (articulation, word recognition, word and picture relationships and sight reading). An ESEA Title I Summer program in Passaic, New Jersey, Public Schools used music to enhance the learning of reading. The program included cultural events, vocal and instrumental music and enrichment activities. (Kohanski, 1970)
  Music and arts enriched curriculum can be a factor in raising IQ scores for second graders. A study of an arts enriched language arts program found a positive effect on the attitude and IQ of second grade students. (Mathison, 1977)
   Students in music programs perform better on CTBS tests than those who do not participate in the programs. A study of children in the Albuquerque, New Mexico public schools demonstrated that in all areas of comparison of CTBS scores (California Test of Basic Skills), fifth graders who were enrolled in instrumental music classes scored higher than their peers who were not enrolled. The longer pupils were enrolled, the better they achieved. In 1979, students with two or more years in band scored 10% higher in reading than the total group of fifth graders. They scored 12% higher in language than the others., Those students in music programs for two or more years scored consistently higher than those who participated only one year. (Robitaille & O'Neal, 1981)
   Children who receive music and other arts curriculum in instruction to emphasize listening, speaking, reading and writing skills in the teaching of reading surpass program objectives of achievement. A study of the Learning to Read Through the Arts (LTRTA), a Title I Program for elementary students in New York involved 677 regular students and 107 special education students. All grades surpassed the program objective of five normal curve equivalents on the California Achievement Test scores. Bi-lingual and special education students also surpassed program goals as measured by the Wisconsin Design Skill Development test. Teachers noted that participation in the program led to improved student behaviors, greater motivation to read, an awakening of student interest and emotional growth in some sixth graders. (Walker, 1982)
   The PALS Project (Art as a Learning Strategy) followed the success of LTRTA. The project involved a well planned curriculum which included music and longitudinal study with carefully drawn conclusions. Students in this program out-achieved those not in the program when all were tested in reading proficiency., (Milley, 1983)
   In reading for meaning, music students can out-achieve non-music students. An evaluation of the achievement in reading and math of elementary school students revealed the higher achievement of fifth grade instrumental music students than their non-music peers. (Friedman, 1959)

Music and Math Achievement

Children who have received school keyboard music lessons score higher in mathematics and history than students not in the program, although their IQ scores are no higher than the other students'. This conclusion was drawn by Art Harrell, Director of Music for public schools in Wichita, Kansas. He reported on a project in which 13,000 children in 42 schools entered an ESEA Title I program of additional art, music, P.E., Industrial Arts classes with enrichment and counseling. (ESEA, 1969)
  Receiving increased music instruction can lead to increased learning in mathematics. The California Arts Council's Alternatives in Education program (AIE) has been in selected schools since 1976. Arts have been found to make a cognitive impact. When music periods have been increased, children have made an average gain of one and one half times the normal rate in math (.75 years in six months). (Maltester, 1986)

Books, Articles, Documents

   Rationale for arts education is well articulated in the following material.
   Arts education needs to be seen as an integral part of the teaching process. There is an intimate connection between imagination and intellect. The value of arts education is based on its relationship to the imagination and other functions of the mind. In teaching concepts, the arts create an image, which in turn leads to understanding of the concept. (Broudy, 1979)
   Brain Research shows that music and arts activities develop the intellect. The immature brain develops intellectual capacity when a child participates in arts activities. For example, music experiences aid in developing language. Students should be involved in performing the arts, which train the brain in aesthetic literacy. Such activities develop perceptual, imaginative and visual abilities. Since the immature brain is dependent upon sensory stimulation for normal growth, curriculum must be motivational, exciting, and pleasure bearing in order to be retained by the immature brain. Presenting intellectual content is not enough for elementary school students.    Hypothetical-deductive reasoning and abstract thought is usually not possible until eleven years of age. An arts integrated curriculum leads the student to cognitive development. (Sinatra, 1986)
  Research indicates that music instruction promotes academic achievement. Mr. Horn refer to many studies which show that test scores rise when the arts are added to curricula. (Horne, 1983)
  Articles discussing the academic learning connection with music instruction and music as a part of instruction are to be found in the Journal of the Society for Accelerated Learning and Teaching, numbers 3 and 4 of volume 7, years Fall, 1980 through Winter, 1981. These included articles concerning suggestive-accelerate learning, suggestopedia, the Lozanov method, music in the classroom and the Suzuki method. (Summer, 1981)
   Personal expression is encouraged throught performance in the arts. This develops flexible and fluent thinking abilities as well as skills of close scrutiny and careful evaluation. Processes of though in learning are characterized by a highly creative aspect. The arts provide ways for aiding and increasing learning in different ways at various levels. Arts experiences build confidence since they are activities which allow the student to become "in charge", to make decisions based on his/her own thoughts, insights, knowledge and judgments. (Oklahoma State Department of Education, 1980)
   There are many research studies that show a connection between music education and reinforcement for academic tasks. (Madsen, 1981)
   Research shows that babies learn through hearing, while still in the womb. Music helps teach children to learn. Pre-language auditory training can only be done through music. Discrimination between sounds, learned through listening to music, is required to achieve in spelling lessons.
   Eye-hand coordination needed to learn to write can be developed by learning to play an instrument. (Wishey, 1980)
   Disciplinary problems are reduced in school systems which have arts programs. (Arts, Education and Americans, 1980)
   Music activities stimulate development in kindergarten children. (Cowe, 1967)
   Music is the formal system which is derived from the structural component of natural language. (Motycka, 1976)
   Research indicates that reading music can improve reading language abilities in slow young learners. The same skills needed for reading words. Music has been shown to be such an effective component of reading instruction that teachers of reading are now being urged to become competent instructors of music in their reading classes. (Tucker, 1981

Other Resources

Workers in music education advocacy may find valuable information from the following resources.

"Arts in the Curriculum" report addresses the specific steps needed in order to develop an arts integrated curriculum district-wide. (Weinstock, 1981)

Biology of Music Making, Annual International Conferences. These conferences address recent research on music learning and its effect on the brain. For information, write c/o Contemporary Forums, 530 La Gonda Way, Suite E-2, Danville, California 94526. Call (415)820-2800.

"Cognitive Expansion: Relaxation & Music in Recognition Task" (Stricherz & Stein, 1980)

Optimal learning, Barzak Education Institute, 760 Market Street, Suite 315, San Francisco, California 94102.

"Performing Together: The Arts and Education", a pamphlet which sets forth the positive benefits of music education. It includes a check list for parents and community leaders who wish to determine whether or not the local school has a quality arts program. Available at $1.50 from American Association of School Administrators, 1801 No. Moore Street, Arlington, Virginia 22209. (Amudson, 1985)(

The Arts - Missing Link in the Basic Curriculum includes description of Administrator responsibility in developing an integrated, interdisciplinary arts curriculum in the general curriculum. (Linh, 1981)


Amudson, K. (1985), Performing together: The arts and education. (Available from the American Association of School Administrators, 1801 N. Moore St., Arlington, Virginia)

Appel, L.S. & Goldberg;, J. (1979). Arts in education for handicapped children. Final report. Washington, DC: Bureau of Education for the Handicapped (DNEW/OE), Division of Innovation and Development. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 195 069)

Arts, Education and Americans, Inc. (1980). Local school boards and the arts: A call for leadership. New York, NY: Author. (Eric Document Reproduction Service No. ED 242 615)

Blackburn, G.B. (1986). The effects of a videotaped musical treatment on learning of Dolch sight words by kindergarten students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47, (7) 187. (University Microfilms No. 86-13,968)

Blome, A. & James M. (1985). The principal as instructional leader: an evolving role. National Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin, 69 (481), 48-54.

Broudy, H.S. (1979). Arts education: Necessary or just nice? Phi Delta Kappan, 60, 347-50.

California State Department of Education. (1982). Visual and Performing Arts Framework for California Public Schools: Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve. (Available from author, P.O. Box 271, Sacramento, CA 95802)

California State Department of Education (1986). Model Curriculum Guidelines, grades Kindergarten Through Eight Visual and Performing Arts. (Available from Author, P.O. Box 271, Sacramento, CA 95802)

Callahan, C.M., Covert, R., Crovo, M., Vanco, P. (1980) Evaluating a local gifted program: A LEA/University cooperative effort. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 195 589)

Chance, Amy (1987, March 15). The hottest feud in town. The Sacramento Bee, pp. A1, A29.

Churchwell, B., Gonzalez, G. & Orlando, J. (1981). The high school for performing and visual arts: Where arts and academics flourish. Today's Education, 70, 22-24.

Combs, E.G., (1967). A study of kindergarten activities for language development. New York: Columbia University.

Delehanty, H.J. (1983) Harnessing the brain's hidden powers, optimalearning: The art of learning through the arts. San Francisco Focus, 4, 44-45, 85-86.

Eisner, E.W. (1976). Making the arts a reality in the schools of tomorrow - an agenda for today. Art Education, 29, (3) 20-24.

Eisner, E.W. (1981). The role of the arts in cognition and curriculum. Phi Delta Kappan, 63, 48-52.

ESEA Title Evaluation Report. (1969) Wichita program for educationally deprived children, September 1968 - August 1969. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 034 818.

Friedman, B. (1959) An evaluation of the achievement in reading and arithmetic of pupils in elementary schools instrumental music classes. Dissertation Abstracts International, 20, 3662-3663. (University Microfilms No., 59, 6219).

Garbarino, J. & Asp, C. (1981) Successful Schools and Competent Students. Mass: Lexington Books, D.C. Health and Co.

Haselhort, C.A. (1979) Organized action to save your vocal program. The School Musician, Director/Teacher, 11,14.

Heller, J. & Campbell, W. (1976). Modes of language and intellect in music research. In Motycka, A. (Ed.) Music Education for Tomorrow's Society: Selected Topics. (Available from Gamt Music Press, P.O. Box 125, Jamestown, RI)

Hillery, M.A. (1977) A guide to the use of street/folk musical games in the classroom. Vol. 1. Washington DC: Office of Education (DHEW). (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 186 334)

Hiller, M.A. (1979) A guide to the use of street/folk musical games in the classroom. Vol. 2. Washington DC: Office of Education (DHEW). (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 186 335)

Horne, C. (1983, February, March). If you don't do it, nobody else will. CMEA News, 11-13, 26.

Jacobs, J. (1985, February-March). Time to invest in learning. California School Boards Journal, 44, (2) 8.

Karel, L.C. (1978, September) Music education: Strategies for survival. Music ducators Journal, 65 30-35.

Karimer, L. (1984). Can southeast Asian students learn to discriminate between English phonemes more quickly with the aid of music and rhythm? In D.J. Barker & D. Terdy (Eds.), Language Key to Learning: Selected Papers From the Annual State Convention of the Illinois Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages/Bilingual Education. Vol 5. Chicago IL (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 263 777)

Kaufman, B. (1976, November-December). Where every child is special. Today's Education, 65, (4) 22-25.

Kohanski, D.D. (1970) Passaic, N.J. report on ESEA Title I Summer Program, July 1970. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 053-467.)

Kollars, D. (1987, March 5). Schools staff cut by 300. The Sacramento Bee, pp. A1, A26.

Legislative Action Coalition of Arts Educators. (1987) Legislative action plan, 1987. Sacramento, CA. Author.

Lillemyr, O.F. (1983). Achievement motivation as a factor in self-perceptions. Norway: Norwegian Research Council for Science and the Humanities. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 237 418)

Lind, S.J. (1980, February). A band director looks at choirs. Choral Journal, 9.

Linh, K.G. (1981). The arts - a missing link in the basic curriculum. Vt: Southwest Vermont Supervisory Union. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 245 996)

Medeja, S.S. (Ed.) The Arts, Cognition and Basic Skills. St. Louis, MO: Central Midwestern Regional Education Lab., Inc. (CEMEREL).

Madsen, C. & Forsythe, J. (1973), Summer). Effect of contingent music listening on increases of mathematical responses. Journal of Research In Music Education, 21, 176-181.

Maltester, J. (1986, January). Music - the social and academic edge. Thrust, 25-27.

Marshall, A.T. (1978) An analysis of music curricula and its relationship to the self image of urban black middle school age children. Dissertation Abstracts International, A38: 6594 A-5A.

Mathison, D.R. (1977). A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of language arts instruction with special emphasis on aesthetic values for selected kindergarten, first and second grade children. A Study of Kindergarten Activities for Language Development. New York, NY: Columbia University.

Milley, J., Buchen, I., Okerlund, A. & Mortarotti, J. (1983). The Arts: An Essential Ingredient in Education. Position paper of the California Council of Fine Arts Deans. (Available from the School of Fine Arts, California State University, Long Beach)

Minicucci, P. (1981), September). Arts in schools, an agenda for the '80s. California School Boards Journal, 10.

Moon, C., Render, G. & Pendley, D. (1985). Relaxation and educational outcomes: A meta analysis. Chicago, IL: The American Educational Research Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 263 501)

Mueller, M. (1984). Right brain strategies for the full development of the individual through study of the arts. A Review of General Session II, ACC-VACC Conference, Sacramento, CA, February 21, 1984. San Francisco, CA: The Music Department Bulletin, City College of San Francisco.

Music for tiny infants. (1987, July 11). The Sacramento Bee, p. A21.

NEA calls for curriculum based arts study. (1986), December). Music Educators Journal, P.9

New York City Board of Education. (1980). Learning to read through the arts, title I children's program P.S. 9. (Available from Author, Brooklyn NY. Division of Curriculum and Instruction, 100k W. 84th St, New York, NY)

Oklahoma State Department of Education. (1980). Linking the arts and basic curriculum. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 244 847

Olanoff, M., & Kirschner, L. (1969). Musical ability utilization program. Final Report. Washington DC: Office of Education (DHEW), Bureau of Research. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 045 688)

Ostrander, S. & Schroder, L. (1979). Super learning. New York: Delacorte Press.

Oversith Hearing on Arts Education. (1984). Hearing before the subcommittee on elementary, secondary, and vocation education of the commission on education and labor. Washington, DC: House of Representatives. 98th Congress, Second session (February 28). Congress of the U.S. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 247 210)

Oxnard Union High School District. (1985). Curriculum Framework for Music. (Available from Author, Oxnard, CA)

Paradise, California School. (1984). Paradise, California, Elementary School Experiment. Paradise Unified School District.

Reingold, E. (1987, March 2). they all have high hopes. Time, p., 61.

Robitaille, J. & O'Neal, S. (1981) Why instrumental music in the elementary schools? Phi Delta Kappan, 63, 213.

Shuler, S. (1987, May/June). curricular is as curricular does or building our house of bricks. CMEA News, 40, pp. 5-6.

Stricherz, M. & Stein, V. (1980). Cognitive expansion: relaxation and music in a recognition task. Journal of Suggestive-Accelerate Learning and Teaching, 5, pp. 99-105.

Summer, L. (1981, Spring). Tuning up the classroom with music and relaxation. The Journal of the Society for Accelerative Learning and Teaching. 6, pp. 46-50. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 258 461)

Tucker, A.B. (1980), Fall). Reading and music: Can we bring them together? Reading Improvement, 17, pp. 224-225.

Tucker, A.B. (1981, Spring). Music and the teaching of reading. Reading Improvement, 18, pp. 14-19.

Walker, S. (1982). Learning to read through the arts, title I children's program. Final evaluation report, 1981-82. Brooklyn, NY: Office of Educational evaluation, New York City Board of Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. Ed 236 280)

Weinstock, R. (1981). Arts in the curriculum. (Report AEA-8). New York, NY: The Arts, Education and Americans, Inc. (ERIC Document Service No. Ed 206 529)

Wickert, D. (1985). Some school finance issues related to the implementation of Serrano and proposition 13. Journal of Education Finance, 10, pp. 535-542.

Wirt, F., & Kirst, M. (1981). Schools in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan Publishing Corp.

Wise, A. (1979). Legislated learning. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.

Wishey, A. (1980). Music as the source of learning. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.


Alexander, K. (1981, September). Who needs art? California School Boards Journal, p. 14.

Broudy, H.S. (1979). Arts education: Necessary or just nice? Phi Delta Kappan, 60, 347-50.

Efland, A. (1985). Excellence in education: The role of the arts. Theory Into Practice, 23, pp. 267-272.

Eisner, E. (1980), Spring). Why public schools should teach the arts. New York Education Quarterly, 11, pp. 2-7.

Garbarino, J. & Asp, C. (1981) Successful Schools and competent Students. Mass: Lexington Books, D.C. Heath and Co.

Linh, K.G. (1981). The arts - a missing link in the basic curriculum. Vt: Southwest Vermont Supervisory Union. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 245 996)

Medeja, S.S. (Ed.). The Arts, Cognition and Basic Skills. St. Louis, MO: Central Midwestern Regional Educational Lab., Inc. (CEMREL).

Madsen, C.K. (1981). Music lessons and books as reinforcement alternatives for an academic task. Journal of Research in Music Education, 29, (2) 103-10

Madsen, C. & Forsythe, J. (1973, Summer). Effect of contingent music listening on increases of mathematical responses. Journal of Research in Music Education, 21, 176-181.

Michel, D, Parker, P., Grokas, D., Werner, J. (1982, Winter). Music therapy and remedial reading: Six studies testing specialized hemispheric processing. Journal of Music Therapy, pp. 219-229.

Sinatra, R. (1986). Visual literacy connections to thinking, reading and writing. Charles C. Thomas

Stricherz, M. & Stein, V. (1980). cognitive expansion: Relaxation and music in a recognition task. Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching, 5, pp. 99-105.

Summer, L. (1981), Spring. tuning up the classroom with music and relaxation. The Journal of the Society for Accelerative Learning and Teaching. 6, pp. 46-50. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 258 461)

Weinstock, R. (1981). Arts in the curriculum. (Report AEA-8) New York, NY: The Arts, Education and Americans, Inc. (ERIC Document Service No. ED 206 529)

Wilson, F. (1986). Tone deaf and all thumbs. Viking Press.

Wisher, A. (1980). Music as the source of learning. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.